Thank you for making me more than I am

Dedication:

This thesis is dedicated to Jacky Lee 1946 – 2011 who never got to read the final draft. You are the determination in every page.

Acknowledgements

While my name may be alone on the front cover of this thesis, I am by no means its sole contributor. Rather, there are a number of people behind this piece of work who deserve to be both acknowledged and thanked here: kind participants; patient friends (especially Lucy, who regularly brought wine and smiles); committed supervisors; generous research advisory group members; an inspiring mother (who lead me here) and a determined father (my personal proof-reader…); and a fantastically supportive partner.

I am forever indebted to my academic supervisers, Dr Carol Wolkowitz and Dr Karen Throsby, for their enthusiasm, guidance, and unrelenting support throughout this process. They have routinely gone beyond their duties to fire fight my worries, concerns, and anxieties, and have worked to instil great confidence in both myself and my work. In addition, both have generously shared their passion for feminism, and their knowledges of sexualities and the body which are to the great benefit of this thesis.

I would like to thank my partner for his unremitting encouragement. Put simply, I have never met anyone who believes in me more. Thank you for making me more than I am.

Most importantly of all, I show extensive gratitude to all of the people who warmly contributed their stories, histories, and experiences. Without this willingness to share, the research would not have even been possible. In the same vein, I would like to extend great thanks to Research Advisory Group members who offered their time, support and commitment. This piece of research looks very different because of their input, influence and expert knowledge.

Lastly, I thank the Economic and Social Sciences Research Council (ESRC) which provided full funding for this work. 

Contributor: Kirsty Liddiard

SourceLiddiard, K (2012) (S)exploring disability: Intimacies, sexualities and disabilities, PhD, University of Warwick

Train journeys at ungodly hours

The Golden Age is before us, not behind us

Sallust 

First of all, a huge “thank you” to my supervisor for these past, nearly four, years, Professor David Collison, for his unflagging support and advice of one sort and another. Hopefully all those train journeys at ungodly hours paid off.

Also, thanks to Mark Whiteley, one of the nicest and most helpful people imaginable, who supervised my 3rd-year and MChem projects, for setting me off on further roads, and to both Emma and Hannah for their good influence then and since.

To Professors Eric McInnes and Richard Winpenny for advice and inspiration. Sorry this took so long Richard, it wasn’t deliberate, honest!

To Iain May for what seems to have been a career defining chat a long, long time ago…

In the Magnets Group and beyond, thanks to Floriana Tuna for her expertise with EPR and SQUID. To Stephen Sproules for help with EPR and being so knowledgeable about almost everything, danke sehr. Thanks to Asad for everything over the past eight (help!) years. Won’t forget seeing England keep The Ashes at Old Trafford, rain and all. To Eufemio, Panama’s greatest scientist! One day, maybe, I’ll get there… Thanks to Luke and Tom for being magnets-heroes to worship. To all those past and present members who’ve offered up some help or advice, you’re all wonderful. A special thanks to those who had to endure my tortuous writing up and for their (unwitting or otherwise) support through it, especially James, Sam and Claire.

For the newer Magnets Group members at Manchester and those venturing abroad (Scotland), best wishes! Keep your enthusiasm if possible. And good luck to all MChem students who passed through my orbit. I noticed not many of you stuck with chemistry though… To the latest project students Tom (Prodigy) and Hatty, I hope you get what you want!

Even more recently I made the geographically short move to the National EPR Service. I’m so grateful to know the wonderful people Chloe, Simon and Dan who haunt the Alan Turing Building. Thanks for keeping me at least slightly sane whilst figuring things out over there!

To my brothers John and Ben: Hurrah, made it this far! Thanks for all the things that have made this more bearable. Maybe all those weird side-projects can get done now… rockets, weather balloons, rail-guns, prog-rock albums??? So much to catch up with…

Lastly, thanks to my parents for all the moral support and the amazing chances they’ve given me over the years (not to mention living in the same house as me and John for the past few years in particular).

Contributor: Joseph Sharples

Source: Sharples, J (2013) Cooling Rapidly and Relaxing Slowly with 4f Ions, PhD, University of Manchester

Showing that someone ‘out there’ is interested in what I’m doing has been immensely valuable

First, I would like to thank my friends at Brunel who have taken the greater part of this PhD journey with me, as part of the Cleaner Electronics Research Group and within Brunel Design more generally. In particular, thank you, Dr Alex Plant, Dr Nicola Combe, Fergus Bisset and Richard Young. While we were all doing our own thing, having your support and friendship has meant a great deal during both the good times and those when things haven’t gone so well. This kind of research can be a very lonely experience, and to know, and be able to talk to, others who are going through similar struggles is incredibly important.

Thank you to my supervisors: Professor David Harrison at Brunel, who took a chance on me back in 2007, enabled this whole PhD, and has been a constant source of support and sensible advice, and Professor Neville Stanton (now at Southampton), who has offered his comprehensive knowledge and strategic insights throughout, and to the Ormsby Trust and Thomas Gerald Gray Charitable Trust for their support.

Other colleagues at Brunel, past and present, both staff and students, whose help I have appreciated over the course of this PhD include:

Alexander Ambridge, Dr Marco Ajovalasit, Dr Sharon Baurley, Dr Stewart Birrell, Dr Jane Coughlan, Annemarie Dah, Loic De Buck, Dr Hua Dong, Dr Sam Duby, the late Lyn Edgecock, Chris Ellis, Professor Graeme Evans, Stephen Green, Linda Hartley, Dr Gareth Hay, Tim Holley, Jane Jang, Dr Dan Jenkins, Ron Jackson, Dr Ljubica Lazarevic, Amy Liu, Chris McGinley, Farnaz Nickpour, Dr Alexandre Pelegrini, Rob Phillips, Nick Sardar, Dr Darren Southee, Paul Turnock, Nikii Wang, Dr Yanmeng Xu, Dr Mark Young

I must thank my colleagues at WMG, University of Warwick from 2011-12—Dr Rebecca Cain, Professor Paul Jennings and Dr Seb Giudice—for their support and for showing me that the approach I have taken in this PhD is valued in a different academic context. Most recently, in 2013, I would like to thank my new colleagues at the Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, and SustainRCA, at the Royal College of Art, for opening up an infectiously optimistic worldview on the potential of people-centred design for sustainability and quality of life. Thank you to Catherine Greene, Flora Bowden, Rama Gheerawo, Jo-Anne Bichard, Clare Brass and Professor Jeremy Myerson.

The most enjoyable part of this PhD has been meeting a wonderful group of fellow researchers from all over the world, working on similar, intersecting or tangentially related subjects around persuasive technology, behaviour, interaction, design for social benefit and sustainability. Nominally they are situated in lots of different disciplines—with perhaps surprisingly few in `design’—but they share a commonality in considering understanding people to be an important part of understanding technological systems. The help and support they have given ranges from brief discussions to deep, sometimes metaphysical conversations, to a strengthening of a feeling of camaraderie, even when half-way across the world. Everyone has been useful, in one way or another, in getting this PhD done. I would, therefore, like to thank:

Dr Conny Bakker, Dr Magnus Bang, Professor Russell Beale, Lykke Bertel, Professor Robert Biddle, Dr Lennart Bjorneborn, Professor Casper Boks, Dr Kristina Borjesson, Loove Broms, Elizabeth Buie, Dr Stuart Candy, Kara Chanasyk, Jessica Charlesworth, Anne-Kathrine Christensen, Dr Benjamin Cowan, Dr Salmaan Craig, Dr Brian Cugelman, Johannes Zachrisson Daae, Dr Janet Davis, Dr Annelise De Jong, Christel De Maeyer, Sebastian Deterding, Jens Wilhelm Dinesen, Dr Steven Dorrestijn, Filip Drozd, Dr Dean Eckles, Dr Edward Elias, Dr Gloria Elizondo, Dr BJ Fogg, Dr Alain Forget, Dr Jon Froehlich, Gonzalo Garcia-Perate, Louise Norgaard Glud, Sandra Burri Gram-Hansen, Lasse Burri Gram-Hansen, Dr Elke Greifeneder, Victoria Haines, Dr Qin Han, Arjan Haring, Alex Heeney, Jason Hreha, Sadhna Jain, Kirsikka Kaipainen, Elin Olsen Kallevik, Dr Maurits Kaptein, Lucy Kimbell, Lenneke Kuijer, Ksenija Kuzmina, Dr Mark Lacy, Dr Tuomas Lehto, Dr Debra Lilley, Dr Erica Lofstrom, Professor Elizabeth Losh, Kendra Markle, Richard Mawle, Dr Ramia Maze, Dr Christian McLening, Dave Miller, Jordy Mont-Reynaud, Maria Alejandra Moreno, Dr Ruth Mugge, Prof. Sendhil Mullainathan, Dr Sean Munson, Kiersten Nash, Dr Hien Nguyen, Sylvia Nicholles, Prof. Harri Oinas-Kukkonen, Luis Oliveira, Dr Rosie Onions, Ida Nilstad Pettersen, Dr Laura Rafferty, Dr Teppo Raisanen, Dr Rathna Ramanathan, Valentina Rao, Julie Ravn, Dr Wolfgang Reitberger, Sara Renstrom, Mia Ridge, Professor Henrik Scharfe, Dr Melissa Sedmak, Dr Katarina Segerstahl, Anneli Selvefors, Don Steiny, Goril Storroe, Helena Strömberg, Dr Lauren Tan, Professor Harold Thimbleby, Dr Ann Thorpe, Dr Cameron Tonkinwise, Dr Kristian Torning, Nynke Tromp, Dr Marcella Ucci, Fred Van Amstel, Roseliek Van de Velden, Tjebbe Van Eemeren, Professor Peter-Paul Verbeek, Frank Verberne, Tricia Wang, Tristan Weevers, Dr Renee Wever, Garrath Wilson, Jorge Zapico

What set me on this PhD journey in the first place was the confidence that this was an interesting and worthwhile subject, and that I was capable of tackling it. That confidence came, to a large extent, from correspondence with a whole range of people, a few of whom I have still never met in person, from all over the world: people who had read and commented on my blog, or emailed me examples and pictures and references to look up, points of view and contacts who might be useful, and people who urged me to investigate these issues further. Since the toolkit itself in its various forms was made public, another whole wave of people has helped (even if they don’t realise how much) by taking part in workshops, giving me feedback, inviting me to come and talk and run events, suggesting improvements, and so on. Again, that enthusiasm—quite basically, showing that someone `out there’ is interested in what I’m doing—has been immensely valuable and has kept me going during some times when I was close to packing it all in (so, as well as the people named here, I also want to thank the many thousands of anonymous readers who have, in their own way, contributed). Thanks to:

Stephen Anderson, Kate Andrews, Lauren Argenta, Alison Austin, Sophie Barrett, Tim Barrow-Williams, Steve Baty, David Bausola, Martin Belam, Dr Simon Blyth, Andreas Bovens, Cennydd Bowles, James Box, Dr Harry Brignull, Alex Brown, George Buckenham, Andy Budd, Kate Bulpitt, Meagan Call, Emily Campbell, Samidh Chakrabarti, Dr Jennifer Cham, Adi Chambers, James Christie, David Churcher, Giles Colborne, Dr Mary Rose Cook, Dr Fionnuala Costello, Martin Couzins, Ian Crawford, Harriet Creed, Kimberley Crofts, Vicky Cullen, Lauren Currie, Raphael D’Amico, Dawn Danby, Vincenzo Di Maria, Cory Doctorow, Duncan Drennan, Sarah Drummond, Robert Fabricant, Dr Frank Field, Eliot Fineberg, Crosbie Fitch, Seth Godin, David Gray, Adam Greenfield, Mags Halliday, Michael Hallsworth, Rory Hamilton, Tim Harford, Warren Hatter, Edward Horsford, Lydia Howland, Paul Irish, Dr Laura James, Dr Patrick Jordan, Amy Kapell, Aviv Katz, Elizabeth Kessick, Dr Gary Klein, Michael Kohn, Johanna Kollmann, Adrian Leaman, Katy Lindemann, Nick Marsh, Robert Maslin, Adam Menter, Jason Mesut, Felix Mitchell, Jaimes Nel, Luke Nicholson, Mayo Nissen, Dr Bill Nuttall, Oliver Payne, Martyn Perks, Steve Portigal, George Preston, Tom Randall, Ben Reason, Eric Reiss, Chris Risdon, Frankie Roberto, Ayush Saran, Fee Schmidt-Soltau, Joey Scully, Richard Sedley, Adrian Short, Dr Paul Shrubsole, Timothy J Silverman, Clare Sinclair, Matthew Solle, Paula Sparling, Zoe Stanton, Francis Storr, Bruno Taylor, Agnes Tirat, Elle Tweedy, Alice Tyler, Vincent van der Lubbe, Mark Vanderbeeken, Megha Wadhawan, Marney Walker, Laura Walker-Hudson, Adrian Westaway, Dr Duncan Wilson, Jamie Young

I am lucky to have had a wonderful group of friends who have helped me through the last few years, in particular Julian Wood and Michael O’Donnell. I would also like to thank my family—my parents, Barry and Carol and my brother, Tom, for all their support and advice and belief that I was capable of taking on the PhD. And most of all, I want to thank Harriet, who has been endlessly patient, kind, loving and brilliant.

Contributor: @DanLockton

Source: Lockton, D (2013) Design with Intent: A design pattern toolkit for environmental & social behaviour change, PhD in Design, Brunel University

Thank you for your enthusiasm, pride and curiosity to share my map of the world

It is a humbling experience to acknowledge those people who have, mostly out of kindness, helped along the journey of my PhD. I am indebted to so many for encouragement and support.

My sincerest thanks are extended to my project supervisor and mentor, Professor Mary Scholes, for her encouragement and guidance. Eskom and SASOL are acknowledged for their bursary and investment in the research. The National Research Foundation, Andrew Mellon Foundation and the University of the Witwatersrand are thanked for their post-graduate bursary support. The Eskom-SASOL Impacts Working group is acknowledged for their direction and feedback.

My research committee in the School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, Professors Graham Alexander and David Mycock (as chairmen), Dr Barend Erasmus, Dr Chris Herold and Dr Kristy Ross (as committee members), are thanked for their interest and valuable comments on the research. The reviewers of the three manuscripts submitted to journals are thanked for the constructive advice improving the quality of the manuscripts and this thesis.

Several people helped with: the collection of samples, analyses in the laboratory, the preparation of maps, providing advice for statistical analyses and they are all thanked for their contributions. Special mention goes to the support staff of the School of APES, Allison, Chris, Ewa, James, Jason, Kim, Lawrence, Leanne, Lydia, Rori, Ryan, Rob and Stephen C. for help in the field and lab, Stephen W. for assistance with some of the images, Cristy for proof-reading a draft of the thesis. Thanks also to Mr Joseph Mathai for statistical analyses, Prof Edward Witkowski for statistical advice and Ms Jolene Fisher for GIS and statistical advice. Dr Adri Kotze and team at BEM Labs (Pty) Ltd are thanked for their efficient service and prompt response to queries. My heart-felt thanks to Dr Nina Snyman for the private, hands-on tutorials in using ArcGIS. I am grateful to Super Group Limited for assistance with printing copies of the thesis.

To my many friends and family, you should know that your support and encouragement was worth more than I can express on paper.

Thank you Jenny and Meg for breakfasts, tea-breaks and advice – you were always there with a word of encouragement or listening ear.

To Carl – thank you for your enthusiasm, pride and curiosity to share my map of the world.

Mom and Bridget, you knew it would be a long and sometimes bumpy road, but encouraged and supported me along the way. Thank you.

To dad who was often in my thoughts on this journey – you are missed.

Contributor: @terr1firma

Source: Bird, T (2011) Some impacts of sulfur and nitrogen deposition on the soils and surface waters of the Highveld grasslands, South Africa, PhD, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

…the discerning input of my brilliant proof readers

I’d like to thank Dave Millard for his support and guidance through the course of this research. His uncanny ability to ask searching, difficult questions has undoubtedly strengthened my critical abilities, not to mention this work. My thanks also extend to Andy Stanford-Clark, whose shrewd input and enthusiasm have kept me on track and engaged.

I’ve had the good fortune to have guidance from many others, notably including my second supervisors Dave de Roure and Mark Weal. I’m grateful to the many study participants who so generously gave up their time, and for the discerning input of my brilliant proof readers. This work was also made possible by IBM’s generous support.

The communities at IBM Hursley and LSL have been welcoming and supportive, while figures such as Faith Lawrence and Max Wilson been role models for conducting doctoral-level research. I continue to draw inspiration from those around me, particularly Wendy Hall and Nate Matias, who achieve great goals with dedication and hard work while supporting the many communities around them.

I’m lucky to have many wonderful people in my life, and I’d like to thank them for their support: amongst people too numerous to list, my thanks extend to Reena, Jane, Don, Thomas, John-Mark, Ruth ‘n’ Tim, Alan, Hugh, Dave and the OGC crowd. Thanks for putting up with me!

Finally, and most of all, my thanks to Alisdair for his unfailing support, which is too extensive to enumerate.

Contributor: @ClareJHooper

Source: EngD, University of Southampton

I am very grateful to all those who have given me their friendship, put up with my odd hours, and provided me with lifts and practical help

My thanks are due first to my Director of Studies, Dr Martin Polley, of the School of Education, University of Southampton (formerly of King Alfred’s College of Higher Education, Winchester), and my Second Supervisor, Professor Joyce Goodman, of University College, Winchester, for their guidance, encouragement and enthusiasm for my project over the years. My thanks are also directed at my Academic Advisor, Dr Terence Rodgers, of Bath Spa University College, for advice and comments on particular aspects of the thesis, and to Professor Roger Richardson, University College, Winchester, for his initial help and supervision of the project. I am grateful to Dr Malcolm Smith, of the University of Wales, Lampeter, and Dr Chris Aldous, of University College, Winchester, for their examining input at the upgrade stage.

University College, Winchester also provided a lively research community and I am grateful to other staff and postgraduates for their support and ideas, in particular Dr Stephanie Spencer for allowing me to practise verbally expounding my ideas. King Alfred’s generously funded the initial three years of study, and has subsequently funded attendance at conferences, giving me further opportunities to present my work and discuss issues with established historians. It also funded participation at workshops, including those concerning the digitisation of historical resources. The library, in particular Miranda Nield-Dumper, patiently ordered many inter-library loans, and the ITCS Department ensured that my computer remained in working order, whilst Ian Short (software developer) and Lynne Frost (née Biltcliffe) (IT Trainer) also provided help with the initial development of the project database. I am exceptionally grateful to Dr James Heather, University of Surrey at Guildford, who has spent many hours developing the project database to my requirements, even whilst completing his own PhD.

An extensive amount of time has been spent in archives and record offices, and I thank all the staff for the help and advice given, particularly the following: Michael Moody at the Imperial War Museum; Anna Green and Joy Eldridge of the Mass-Observation Archives; Katrina Royall and others at the Victoria & Albert Museum; the Public Record Office; the British Library, in particular The British Library Newspaper Library, Colindale; Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge; the London Transport Museum; the House of Lords Record Office; the Wellcome Institute and the Women’s Library.

I am also indebted to other libraries that allowed me to use their facilities in the course of my research, in particular Winchester School of Art Library, the Hartley Library, University of Southampton; the Institute for Historical Research; St. Peter’s Library, University of Brighton; Templeman Library, University of Kent at Canterbury, and the library at the University of Sussex. I am very appreciative of University College, Winchester who allowed me to attend the ‘Research Methodology’ module from ‘MA in Regional and Local History and Archaeology’, and Winchester School of Art, who allowed me to attend selected lectures from ‘MA: Art and Ideology in Europe 1917-1968’, both free of charge. I also appreciate the University of Kent at Canterbury, who allowed me to attend selected lectures from their ‘MA in Propaganda, Persuasion and History’. I am very grateful to all those who have written to me, particularly those who completed my questionnaire in 1997 and 1998, from which I received much useful information.

Personally, I would like to thank my family and friends for supporting me throughout the years, financially, practically and with moral support, especially my parents. I am exceptionally grateful to Andrew Frost for providing me with a room at a rate that I could afford to stay in Winchester for a key time. Particular thanks goes to Toby and Nicky Robinson and Justin Wood for providing me with places to stay whilst conducting extensive research in London, and to Dr Justine Cooper, who alongside such practical help, provided beneficial advice arising from her previous experience as a Winchester PhD student. Kate Stephens gave me exceptional moral support, Karen Neal allowed me to practise explaining my thesis, David and Chris Quayle were supportive landlords during the final months of writing, and there are many more whom I could name, including Amanda Henocq and Helen Hobbs, but the list would be absurdly long. I am very grateful to all those who have given me their friendship, put up with my odd hours, and provided me with lifts and practical help.

Contributor: @ww2poster

Source: Lewis, B (2004) The Planning, Design and Reception of British Home Front Propaganda Posters of the Second World War, PhD, University College Winchester