Showing that someone ‘out there’ is interested in what I’m doing has been immensely valuable

First, I would like to thank my friends at Brunel who have taken the greater part of this PhD journey with me, as part of the Cleaner Electronics Research Group and within Brunel Design more generally. In particular, thank you, Dr Alex Plant, Dr Nicola Combe, Fergus Bisset and Richard Young. While we were all doing our own thing, having your support and friendship has meant a great deal during both the good times and those when things haven’t gone so well. This kind of research can be a very lonely experience, and to know, and be able to talk to, others who are going through similar struggles is incredibly important.

Thank you to my supervisors: Professor David Harrison at Brunel, who took a chance on me back in 2007, enabled this whole PhD, and has been a constant source of support and sensible advice, and Professor Neville Stanton (now at Southampton), who has offered his comprehensive knowledge and strategic insights throughout, and to the Ormsby Trust and Thomas Gerald Gray Charitable Trust for their support.

Other colleagues at Brunel, past and present, both staff and students, whose help I have appreciated over the course of this PhD include:

Alexander Ambridge, Dr Marco Ajovalasit, Dr Sharon Baurley, Dr Stewart Birrell, Dr Jane Coughlan, Annemarie Dah, Loic De Buck, Dr Hua Dong, Dr Sam Duby, the late Lyn Edgecock, Chris Ellis, Professor Graeme Evans, Stephen Green, Linda Hartley, Dr Gareth Hay, Tim Holley, Jane Jang, Dr Dan Jenkins, Ron Jackson, Dr Ljubica Lazarevic, Amy Liu, Chris McGinley, Farnaz Nickpour, Dr Alexandre Pelegrini, Rob Phillips, Nick Sardar, Dr Darren Southee, Paul Turnock, Nikii Wang, Dr Yanmeng Xu, Dr Mark Young

I must thank my colleagues at WMG, University of Warwick from 2011-12—Dr Rebecca Cain, Professor Paul Jennings and Dr Seb Giudice—for their support and for showing me that the approach I have taken in this PhD is valued in a different academic context. Most recently, in 2013, I would like to thank my new colleagues at the Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, and SustainRCA, at the Royal College of Art, for opening up an infectiously optimistic worldview on the potential of people-centred design for sustainability and quality of life. Thank you to Catherine Greene, Flora Bowden, Rama Gheerawo, Jo-Anne Bichard, Clare Brass and Professor Jeremy Myerson.

The most enjoyable part of this PhD has been meeting a wonderful group of fellow researchers from all over the world, working on similar, intersecting or tangentially related subjects around persuasive technology, behaviour, interaction, design for social benefit and sustainability. Nominally they are situated in lots of different disciplines—with perhaps surprisingly few in `design’—but they share a commonality in considering understanding people to be an important part of understanding technological systems. The help and support they have given ranges from brief discussions to deep, sometimes metaphysical conversations, to a strengthening of a feeling of camaraderie, even when half-way across the world. Everyone has been useful, in one way or another, in getting this PhD done. I would, therefore, like to thank:

Dr Conny Bakker, Dr Magnus Bang, Professor Russell Beale, Lykke Bertel, Professor Robert Biddle, Dr Lennart Bjorneborn, Professor Casper Boks, Dr Kristina Borjesson, Loove Broms, Elizabeth Buie, Dr Stuart Candy, Kara Chanasyk, Jessica Charlesworth, Anne-Kathrine Christensen, Dr Benjamin Cowan, Dr Salmaan Craig, Dr Brian Cugelman, Johannes Zachrisson Daae, Dr Janet Davis, Dr Annelise De Jong, Christel De Maeyer, Sebastian Deterding, Jens Wilhelm Dinesen, Dr Steven Dorrestijn, Filip Drozd, Dr Dean Eckles, Dr Edward Elias, Dr Gloria Elizondo, Dr BJ Fogg, Dr Alain Forget, Dr Jon Froehlich, Gonzalo Garcia-Perate, Louise Norgaard Glud, Sandra Burri Gram-Hansen, Lasse Burri Gram-Hansen, Dr Elke Greifeneder, Victoria Haines, Dr Qin Han, Arjan Haring, Alex Heeney, Jason Hreha, Sadhna Jain, Kirsikka Kaipainen, Elin Olsen Kallevik, Dr Maurits Kaptein, Lucy Kimbell, Lenneke Kuijer, Ksenija Kuzmina, Dr Mark Lacy, Dr Tuomas Lehto, Dr Debra Lilley, Dr Erica Lofstrom, Professor Elizabeth Losh, Kendra Markle, Richard Mawle, Dr Ramia Maze, Dr Christian McLening, Dave Miller, Jordy Mont-Reynaud, Maria Alejandra Moreno, Dr Ruth Mugge, Prof. Sendhil Mullainathan, Dr Sean Munson, Kiersten Nash, Dr Hien Nguyen, Sylvia Nicholles, Prof. Harri Oinas-Kukkonen, Luis Oliveira, Dr Rosie Onions, Ida Nilstad Pettersen, Dr Laura Rafferty, Dr Teppo Raisanen, Dr Rathna Ramanathan, Valentina Rao, Julie Ravn, Dr Wolfgang Reitberger, Sara Renstrom, Mia Ridge, Professor Henrik Scharfe, Dr Melissa Sedmak, Dr Katarina Segerstahl, Anneli Selvefors, Don Steiny, Goril Storroe, Helena Strömberg, Dr Lauren Tan, Professor Harold Thimbleby, Dr Ann Thorpe, Dr Cameron Tonkinwise, Dr Kristian Torning, Nynke Tromp, Dr Marcella Ucci, Fred Van Amstel, Roseliek Van de Velden, Tjebbe Van Eemeren, Professor Peter-Paul Verbeek, Frank Verberne, Tricia Wang, Tristan Weevers, Dr Renee Wever, Garrath Wilson, Jorge Zapico

What set me on this PhD journey in the first place was the confidence that this was an interesting and worthwhile subject, and that I was capable of tackling it. That confidence came, to a large extent, from correspondence with a whole range of people, a few of whom I have still never met in person, from all over the world: people who had read and commented on my blog, or emailed me examples and pictures and references to look up, points of view and contacts who might be useful, and people who urged me to investigate these issues further. Since the toolkit itself in its various forms was made public, another whole wave of people has helped (even if they don’t realise how much) by taking part in workshops, giving me feedback, inviting me to come and talk and run events, suggesting improvements, and so on. Again, that enthusiasm—quite basically, showing that someone `out there’ is interested in what I’m doing—has been immensely valuable and has kept me going during some times when I was close to packing it all in (so, as well as the people named here, I also want to thank the many thousands of anonymous readers who have, in their own way, contributed). Thanks to:

Stephen Anderson, Kate Andrews, Lauren Argenta, Alison Austin, Sophie Barrett, Tim Barrow-Williams, Steve Baty, David Bausola, Martin Belam, Dr Simon Blyth, Andreas Bovens, Cennydd Bowles, James Box, Dr Harry Brignull, Alex Brown, George Buckenham, Andy Budd, Kate Bulpitt, Meagan Call, Emily Campbell, Samidh Chakrabarti, Dr Jennifer Cham, Adi Chambers, James Christie, David Churcher, Giles Colborne, Dr Mary Rose Cook, Dr Fionnuala Costello, Martin Couzins, Ian Crawford, Harriet Creed, Kimberley Crofts, Vicky Cullen, Lauren Currie, Raphael D’Amico, Dawn Danby, Vincenzo Di Maria, Cory Doctorow, Duncan Drennan, Sarah Drummond, Robert Fabricant, Dr Frank Field, Eliot Fineberg, Crosbie Fitch, Seth Godin, David Gray, Adam Greenfield, Mags Halliday, Michael Hallsworth, Rory Hamilton, Tim Harford, Warren Hatter, Edward Horsford, Lydia Howland, Paul Irish, Dr Laura James, Dr Patrick Jordan, Amy Kapell, Aviv Katz, Elizabeth Kessick, Dr Gary Klein, Michael Kohn, Johanna Kollmann, Adrian Leaman, Katy Lindemann, Nick Marsh, Robert Maslin, Adam Menter, Jason Mesut, Felix Mitchell, Jaimes Nel, Luke Nicholson, Mayo Nissen, Dr Bill Nuttall, Oliver Payne, Martyn Perks, Steve Portigal, George Preston, Tom Randall, Ben Reason, Eric Reiss, Chris Risdon, Frankie Roberto, Ayush Saran, Fee Schmidt-Soltau, Joey Scully, Richard Sedley, Adrian Short, Dr Paul Shrubsole, Timothy J Silverman, Clare Sinclair, Matthew Solle, Paula Sparling, Zoe Stanton, Francis Storr, Bruno Taylor, Agnes Tirat, Elle Tweedy, Alice Tyler, Vincent van der Lubbe, Mark Vanderbeeken, Megha Wadhawan, Marney Walker, Laura Walker-Hudson, Adrian Westaway, Dr Duncan Wilson, Jamie Young

I am lucky to have had a wonderful group of friends who have helped me through the last few years, in particular Julian Wood and Michael O’Donnell. I would also like to thank my family—my parents, Barry and Carol and my brother, Tom, for all their support and advice and belief that I was capable of taking on the PhD. And most of all, I want to thank Harriet, who has been endlessly patient, kind, loving and brilliant.

Contributor: @DanLockton

Source: Lockton, D (2013) Design with Intent: A design pattern toolkit for environmental & social behaviour change, PhD in Design, Brunel University

Thank you for all the face rubs

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It’s amazing to sit and think how many people over the past three and a half years, or one thousand, two hundred and sixteen days to be more precise, have contributed to, or supported my own motivation to complete this MPhil, and it’s even more difficult to attempt to acknowledge all those who have contributed to this process in other ways over that time, or even before it started. However,

THROUGHOUT

To Mum and Dad, I’m never totally sure that you got it (yet), and maybe that’s unfair, but it didn’t stop you always putting up with my rants about it, or stop you being understanding of the knock on impact that this work has had on everything else over the past three and a bit years, so thank you for that. I suppose without the education and upbringing you both have given me none of this would have even got started. Boodle, I knew somewhere deep down that despite being the younger sister and despite me having a head start on you in life you were going to beat me to these letters after my name! You did of course! Thank you for all your support along the way and glad we’ve both got there now! I’d also like to say a massive thank you to Steve and Jill Blount (old enough to be my parents…I mean, honorary parents!) for your support on numerous weekends in the early days of this process. If it wasn’t for you both back in the winter of 2003/2004, introducing me to coffee and Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance and teaching me to ski properly, I don’t think my brain would have ever started working in the way that it has since. You (and everyone else) can be the judge as to whether on balance that’s been a good thing, but seriously you helped me motivate myself to something better in so many ways back then and you continue to be an inspiration to me – thank you!

THE TWITTERSPHERE (NOVEMBER, 2008 – PRESENT)

It’s entirely fair to say that this thesis wouldn’t exist without Twitter so Biz, Jack and Evan, thanks. It is of course ironic that as a result of a medium that limits messages to 140 characters, the world is now bequeathed with this 524,884+ character, 77,000 word monstrosity, but it is less about the length of those tweets and more about the people and ideas with whom and with which I was able to connect throughout this process for which I’m truly grateful. Particularly to the following individuals, in no particular order, @georgejulian, @segelstrom, @rufflemuffin, @redjotter, @designthinkers, @laura_grant@lixindex, @mrstickdorn, @choosenick@meanestindian, @syamant@satumiettinen@designersaccord@mattcurrienz, @Hellibop@jamin, @ylvalindberg, @iterations, (Mr!) @jakoblies, @ninalysbakken@adamstjohn, @wimrampen, @grahamhill, @apolaine, @danlockton, @niccombe, @shlmld@ninaksimon, @ideum and countless others. It does unfortunately feel, to quote The Corries, that “those days are passed now, and in the past they must remain”. But they were great whilst they lasted and we are all still connected so, it might not feel like 2009 again, but who knows what could happen in future… I’d also like to give a special nod at this point to Hugh Dubberly without whose work, this thesis might not exist, or, without which this thesis would most definitely have taken on a very different, and far less valuable form. I put this here, as without Twitter I’m fairly sure I might never have discovered Dubberly’s work. #legend #thankyou.

In addition to their mention above, I’d also like to take the time to say a massive thanks to Marc Stickdorn and Jakob Schneider for their work on This is Service Design Thinking and for enabling me to be part of that project and contribute to it. It has been massively reassuring in the latter stages of this process to know that at least a couple of people believed in my work on a professional basis so thank you both gentlemen, the subsequent success of TISDT is a testament to you both and all your hard work. I’d also like to thank Renato Troncon, whom I got to know better as part of that process, for affirming my conviction of the relationship and the importance of philosophy within design, and of the importance of a philosophy of design, particularly when no one else seemed to take this seriously – thank you!

BRUNEL UNIVERSITY (SEPTEMBER 2008 – FEBRUARY 2010)

Obviously, a big nod needs to go to Dr Mark Young at Brunel University in his role as supervisor of this MPhil and also in his role as chief instigator of the Ergonomics Real Design Exhibition project, cheers Mark! I’d also like to thank the rest of the Ergonomics Real Design Project team for their work and differing contributions and perspectives, all of which have in numerous positive ways supported and challenged this work, and the thinking and contribution of this thesis. Particularly I’d like to thank Dr Laura Grant and Dr Bella Williams from Laura Grant Associates for their help and support with the evaluation aspects of the project, and as they are referenced here, within this thesis as well. I’d also like to thank Colin Johnson from the EPSRC for his support and enthusiasm for the Ergonomics Real Design Project, Margaret Cabbage at the Design Museum for being such a pragmatist and making it all happen and Henrik at A2/SW/HK and Michael Marriott for bringing the yellow and black, co-created, systems-thinking, all other things antithetical to the Design Museum vision to life, and for providing it with the veneer of the London design establishment it evidently required to be as successful as it was, and which the rest of us quite evidently lacked, (and still do)! Also at The Design Museum, Dejan Sudjic and Gemma Curtin for fuelling my anti-motivation and conviction in the importance and relevance of a democratic approach to design, one day I hope you will see more clearly the participatory perspective, just as each day since I understand more clearly the validity of your own ‘legislating view’, in all sincerity your determination and vision for what is right for your current audience only greater forced me to develop my own idea of what, as a designer, my view and relationship with my users should be.

Also at Brunel, I’d like to thank Dr Hua Dong for her support as my second supervisor and for her advice throughout this process, your work ethic and ambition Hua is an inspiration and a case study in motivation itself! Farnaz, for being the first person I showed the Motivational Design Framework to and for not laughing me out of the room, your support and ideas in so may ways in those early stages was invaluable – kheili mamnoon! To the rest of the Inclusive Design Research Group at Brunel University and to Dr Marco Ajovalasit in the Human Centred Design Institute for allowing me to present in the HCDI Seminars in the early stages of this work, thank you.

Also at Brunel I’d like to acknowledge the huge role Dan Lockton and his PhD work on Architectures of Control / Design for Behaviour played in motivating my own belief in a number of things, 1) that it was possible for a designer or a design researcher to take on the concept of behaviour (or motivated behaviour) and for that to be worthwhile, 2) that it was possible for someone at Brunel to do postgraduate research of value and interest to the rest of the design community and 3) that it was a good idea to blog about some of that work. Seriously Dan, without you I wouldn’t have even got started, or believed it possible. What you achieved with your blog, and the means by which you made your work accessible to others over the course of your PhD says more about Public Engagement with Science and motivation than this thesis will ever manage to theorise or replicate. Thanks buddy.

There are a few other folk from my time at Brunel who I’d like to acknowledge, Graham and Lucy Ormiston, for putting up with me in the first year or so as a flatmate and (probably) lousy friend over that period and since. Perhaps most significantly over this time (Dr!) Nicola Combe for those days at the British Library, coffee, cake and chats that kept me sane through all this madness, a sanity that I’m fairly confident I’ve since lacked – thank you Nixy, you’re wonderful, I miss you and many of the things about those days!

POST-BRUNEL (MARCH 2010 – JANUARY 2012)

There is really only one person, in relation to my MPhil, whom I need to thank post-February 2010, the one person who has really believed in it, and been prepared to let me know that, and put up with me when I haven’t been feeling the love for it. George, words cannot describe your patience and support for a process that, well, frankly has been unbearable for us both over the past couple of years. Writing these words signals one thing however, and that is the fact that the process is over and hopefully what hasn’t killed us has only made us, and our relationship stronger. I can’t say it wouldn’t have been complete without you but what I can emphatically say is that you saved me completely losing my sanity to this, just about, oh, and without you the spelling and referencing would have been considerably worse! Seriously George thank you so much. Having said that there was only one more person that I needed to thank, there is one other, who thinks he is a person – Mogsy – thank you for all the face rubs as part of the process of completing this research and writing this thesis up, your company and occasional typing assistance has helped make things considerably more enjoyable, thank you!

Contributor: @FergusBisset

Source: Bisset, F (2012) An elucidation of the concept of motivation within museum exhibition design; an exploration of how designers can support motivational engagement within design, MPhil, Brunel University

…willingness to do lunch and provide instant messenger counseling on demand

To my husband Luke Mewburn: without whom I could not have completed this work. Not only did he offer unstinting love, support and encouragement, but he has proved himself to be a man who is proud to have a wife who has a few more degrees on the wall than he does.

To my son Brendan, age seven, who has endured his mother undertaking two post graduate degrees in the span his short life to date. His affection, patience and willingness to play Nintendo for long periods of time can never be fully rewarded in the form of a completed thesis, but I hope he will read it one day anyway.

Without the financial and material support of the Melbourne School of Design at the University of Melbourne this thesis would never have been written. I wish to thank the institution for generously providing me with free tuition and a living stipend during my candidature, as well as supporting study related overseas travel and expenses.

I am indebted to Brent Allpress from the Architecture and Design School at RMIT University for sparking my interest in gesture and to my supervisor, Dr Scott Drake, who gave me latitude to explore the topic in my own way while constantly providing encouragement, advice and guidance. The other members of my supervisory panel: Dr Greg Missingham, Dr Sue Wilks and Dr Peter Raisbeck patiently read and commented on work in progress, providing me with valuable feedback and many interesting ideas. I would also like to thank Dr Scott Heyes of the University of Melbourne for helping me with methodology.

As a fieldwork based study, this thesis relied on the willingness of many students and teachers who agreed to work under my watchful gaze. They all have my heartfelt thanks. In particular I would like to thank the four main teachers who are shown at work in this study: Dr Peter Corrigan, Dr Pia Ednie Brown, Ms Anna Johnson and Mr Simon Wollan. They not only (bravely) opened up their classrooms to me, but they also took the time to help me develop my ideas about the nature of design teaching practice.

I would not have made much progress theoretically without the actor-network theory discussion group at the University of Melbourne, convened by Professor Diane Mulcahy of the Graduate School of Education. The members of the group always made me feel welcome, even though I was a foreigner from the Melbourne School of Design. Lyn Campbell should be singled out as a generous and thoughtful scholar who took the time to walk with me through this intellectual jungle and point out the promising parts of the undergrowth. I would also like to thank Helena Webster of Oxford Brookes University for encouragement and support and Professor Robin Usher, who deserves special thanks for being both an intellectual mentor and supportive boss.

I have been lucky to be surrounded by many other intelligent and thoughtful people who were ready to hear me rehearse argumentation and theories as I progressed through the study, in particular Dr Robyn Barnacle (who has borne the brunt of it) as well as Beatriz Maturana, Janne Morton and Joan Grieg (for the emails). I can never adequately repay the generosity of Dr Bernard Brown for reading the first draft so thoroughly and well. The feedback from Ian Woodcock, Crystal Legacy, Wiryono Rahajo, Julie Rudner and our facilitator, Harriet Searcy, during the writing circle sponsored by the University of Melbourne was invaluable, as was the support from Jane Trewin and Lorenne Wilks of the Research office in the ABP faculty.

I would also like to thank all my friends, in particular Weiss Zhao, Andrew Maher, Colleen Boyle, Jacques Kosky, Felicity Jones, Elanor Parsons, John Ting, Angela Alessi and various other members of the ‘Pods’ for conversations, both of the intellectual and “troubles telling” variety, which kept me sane throughout. My colleagues at the Graduate Research Office at RMIT University, particularly Helen Lethanks for being so great to work with – and for all the cakes.

My extended family have been supportive throughout and I would like to give a shout out to the Mewburns and the Blackfords for all the dinners, lunches and the baby sitting, in particular Barb and Steve Mewburn. Thanks to my father, Roger, always a good academic role model, who pointed out years ago the importance of reading ‘improving books’ and my mother, Velma, who would have been so proud had she lived to see me finish this thesis.

Finally heartfelt thanks and love to my twin sister, Anitra Nottingham, who was always ready to provide me with the benefit of her experience as a professional graphic designer and online teacher as well as willingness to do lunch and provide instant messenger counseling on demand.

Contributor: Inger Mewburn @thesiswhisperer More info here.
Source: Mewburn, I (2009) Constructing bodies: gesture, speech and representation at work in architectural design studios, PhD, University of Melbourne

The most encouraging and helpful friends I ever had

This journey of PhD research had its highs and lows; yet, I am most lucky to have enormous support along the way. Here, I would like to take the chance to say ‘thank-you’ to everyone.

My supervisory team has been great for the past three years. Professor Tom Inns and Professor Bill Nixon have been encouraging and supportive in supervising this project and the writing of this thesis. Thank you for the inspiring discussions and the enthusiasm toward the topic – I will definitely miss these wonderful conversations!

I am sincerely grateful to all the participants in my research, especially David Townson, Ben Reason, Nick Marsh, Florence Andrews, Gill Wildman and Nick Durrant for sharing the five insights Service Design stories. Your openness is truly appreciated. This thesis would not be possible without these stories and the reflections you shared with me. Thank you for spending your valuable time reviewing and offering feedback on the case studies. Also, from online forums and conferences, I have received useful information and insights from researchers and practitioners from various backgrounds. Here I would like to thank all of you for contributing to the research.

My dear colleagues and friends, Jonathan Baldwin, Nadia Svirydzenka, Fan Xia and Lauren Tan, have been the most encouraging and helpful friends I ever had!

I would like to thank Hazel Field from the Master of Design programme at the University of Dundee and all the students from the past three years, for the wonderful teaching experience alongside the PhD experience. I learned more than I could expect from the teachers and students on this creative and interdisciplinary course.

Finally but most importantly, to my parents, who have always been my motivation and inspiration, even though they cannot be with me in rainy Scotland!

Contributor: @Qin_Han
Source: Han, Q. (2010) Practices and Principles in Service Design, PhD, University of Dundee